Analyzing Students' Learning Obstacles on Distance Material in Three Dimensional


Sukri , Sufyani Prabawanto , Dian Usdiyana






Vol. 9 No. 4 (2023): April


Didactical Obstacle, Epistemological Obstacle, Geometry, Learning Obstacle, Ontogenical Obstacle, Three Dimensional

Research Articles


How to Cite

Sukri, S., Prabawanto, S. ., & Usdiyana, D. . (2023). Analyzing Students’ Learning Obstacles on Distance Material in Three Dimensional . Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 9(4), 1672–1678.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


This study was intended to identify learning obstacles faced by students on the distance between two points and the distance between point-to-line materials. The data in this study was obtained through a test, interview, and documentation of students who have learned the materials. The research method used was the qualitative method with a case study approach. This study involved 33 students of class XII and a teacher as a participant. Learning obstacles found in this study were ontogenical, didactical, and epistemological obstacles. The ontogenical obstacles were the students' lack of basic geometry ability and counting operations of the square root which caused the students to make mistakes in applying the Pythagoras formula, determining the position of perpendicular lines, as well as completing arithmetic operations of the square root. The didactical obstacle was the fact that students were only emphasized on using a quick formula to solve three-dimensional problems. This fact resulted in the uncompleted concept received by students. Consequently, the students forget the proper procedure for solving the problems easily, and they tend to make mistakes in applying the quick formula. The epistemological obstacle was the lack of students' comprehension of a concept to determine the distance between a point to a line if the triangle which is formed is not a right triangle. This lack of comprehension caused the students can’t solve a mathematics problem. The implication of this study is learning materials used by students should be arranged based on students' needs which consider the analysis of learning obstacles so that the learning objectives can be achieved


Alghadari, F., Herman, T., & Prabawanto, S. (2020). Factors Affecting Senior High School Students to Solve Three-Dimensional Geometry Problems. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 15(3), em0590.

Babys, U. (2017). Kemampuan Literasi Matematis Space And Shape Dan Kemandirian Siswa SMA Pada Discovery Learning Berpendekatan RME-PISA. JPMI (Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika Indonesia), 1(2), 43.

Bailey, M., Taasoobshirazi, G., & Carr, M. (2014). A multivariate model of achievement in geometry. Journal of Educational Research, 107(6), 440–461.

Ben-Haim, D., Lappan, G., & Houang, R. T. (1985). Visualizing rectangular solids made of small cubes: Analyzing and effecting students' performance. Educational studies in Mathematics, 16, 389-409.

Brousseau, G. (2002). Theory of Didactical Situations in Mathematics. In Theory of Didactical Situations in Mathematics. United States of America.

Clements, D. H., & Sarama, J. (2011). Early childhood mathematics intervention. Science, 333(6045), 968–970.

Dadang, J., M, I., & Roskawati. (2015). Analisis Penguasaan Siswa Sekolah Menengah Atas pada Materi Geometri. Didaktik Matematika, 2(1), 64–70. Retrieved from

Fitria, S. D., & Maarif, S. (2021). Hambatan epistemologi pada pembuktian geometri sederhana siswa smp ditinjau dari resiliensi matematis. JPMI: Jurnal Pembelajaran Matematika Inovatif, 4(3), 529–540.

Hermanto, R., & Santika, S. (2016). Analisis hasil uji kompetensi guru matematika sekolah menengah pertama (SMP) di Kota Tasikmalaya. JP3M (Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran Matematika), 2(2), 135–142.

Hogg, N. M. (2006). Measuring cognitive load. Handbook of Research on Electronic Surveys and Measurements, 188–194.

Jiang, Z. (2008). Explorations And Reasoning In The Dynamic Geometry Environment. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Asian Conference on Computers in Education. Retrieved from

Kereh, C., Sabandar, J., & Tjiang, P. C. (2013). Identifikasi kesulitan belajar mahasiswa dalam konten matematika pada materi pendahuluan fisika inti. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Sains Dan Pendidikan Sains VIII, 4(1), 10–16. Retrieved from

Kusumaningsih, W., Supandi, S., & Ariyanto, L. (2020). Ethnomathematics for congruence concept: A didactical design in a mathematics classroom. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1663(1).

MdYunus, A. S., Ayub, A. F. M., & Hock, T. T. (2019). Geometric thinking of Malaysian elementary school students. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 1095–1112.

Mundy, J. F. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics: A guide for mathematicians. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 47(8), 868–876. Retrieved from

Noto, M. S., Priatna, N., & Dahlan, J. A. (2019). Mathematical proof: The learning obstacles of pre-service mathematics teachers on transformation geometry. Journal on Mathematics Education, 10(1), 117–125.

Panaoura, A., & Panaoura, G. (2014). Teachers’ awareness of creativity in mathematical teaching and their practice. IUMPST: The Journal, 4, 1–11. Retrieved from

Rofii, A., Sunardi, S., & Irvan, M. (2018). Characteristics of Students’ Metacognition Process At Informal Deduction Thinking Level in Geometry Problems. International Journal on Emerging Mathematics Education, 2(1), 89.

Setiadi, D. R., Suryadi, D., & Mulyana, E. (2017). Didactical Design Enrichment of Angle in Geometry. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 895(1).

Sidik, G. S., Suryadi, D., & Turmudi, T. (2021). Learning Obstacle on Addition and Subtraction of Primary School Students: Analysis of Algebraic Thinking. Education Research International, 2021.

Suryadi, D. (2013). Didactical Design Reasearch (DDR) dalam Pengembangan Pembelajaran Matematika. In Prosiding seminar nasional matematika dan pendidikan matematika, 1, 3-12. Retrieved from

Tall, D. O. (2008). The transition to formal thinking in mathematics. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 20(2), 5–24.

Widana, I. W. (2018). Higher Order Thinking Skills Assessment towards Critical Thinking on Mathematics Lesson. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (IJSSH), 24–32.

Winsløw, C., Matheron, Y., & Mercier, A. (2013). Study and research courses as an epistemological model for didactics. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 83(2), 267–284.

Wu, H. H. (1996). The role of Euclidean geometry in high school. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 15(3), 221–237.

Author Biographies

Sukri, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Sufyani Prabawanto, Mathematics Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia.

Dian Usdiyana, Mathematics Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia.


Copyright (c) 2023 Sukri Sukri, Sufyani Prabawanto, Dian Usdiyana

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY License). This license allows authors to use all articles, data sets, graphics, and appendices in data mining applications, search engines, web sites, blogs, and other platforms by providing an appropriate reference. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions.
  2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA.
  3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).